A digital camera or digicam is a camera that encodes digital images and videos digitally and stores them for later reproduction. Most cameras sold today are digital, and digital cameras are incorporated into many devices ranging from PDAs and mobile phones (called camera phones) to vehicles.
Digital and movie cameras share an optical system, typically using a lens with a variable diaphragm to focus light onto an image pickup device.
The diaphragm and shutter admit the correct amount of light to the imager, just as with film but the image pickup device is electronic rather than chemical. However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images from memory.
Many digital cameras can also record moving videos with sound. Some digital cameras can crop and stitch pictures and perform other elementary image editing.
TYPES OF DIGITAL CAMERA
- Compact cameras
- Action cameras
- Rugged compact cameras
- 360-degree cameras
- Bridge cameras
- Mirror less interchangeable-lens camera (MILC)
- Modular cameras
- Digitalsingle-lens reflex cameras (DSLR)
- Rangefinder camera Digital rangefinder
- line-scan camera systems
- Stand alone cameras
Compact cameras are intended to be portable (pocketable) and are particularly suitable for casual “snapshots”.
Many incorporate a retractable lens assembly that provides optical zoom. In most models, an auto actuating lens cover protects the lens from elements. Most ruggedized or water-resistant models do not retract, and most with (superzoom) capability do not retract fully. Figure(1):- Compact cameras
Action cameras are associated with outdoor sports, and, often attached to helmets, surfboards or handle bars, are an integral part of many extreme sports such as base jumping and wing suit flying. Sometimes several cameras are used to capture specific perspectives, such as a helmet camera that sees the perspective of the actor in combination with a second camera attached to the environment of the rider, such as a board, wing, handlebar or wrist, that looks back onto the rider and records his reactions.
The category is associated with the Go Pro range of cameras, and many action cameras come with a Go Pro mount adapter to take advantage of the accessories available for these cameras.
Rugged compact cameras
Figure(3):- Rugged compact cameras
Rugged compact cameras typically include protection against submersion, hot and cold conditions, shock and pressure.Terms used to describe such properties include waterproof, freezeproof, heatproof, shockproof and crushproof, respectively. Nearly all major camera manufacturers have at least one product in this category
The 360-degree camera can take picture or video 360 degrees using two lenses back-to-back and shooting at the same time.
Some of the cameras are Ricoh Theta S, Nikon Keymission 360 and Samsung Gear 360. Nico360 was launched in 2016 and claimed as the world’s smallest 360-degree camera with size 46 x 46 x 28 mm (1.8 x 1.8 x 1.1 in) and price less than $200.
Figure(5):-Canon’s Bridge camera
Bridge cameras physically resemble DSLRs, and are sometimes called DSLR-shape or DSLR-like. They provide some similar features but, like compacts, they use a fixed lens and a small sensor. Some compact cameras have also PSAM mode. Most use live preview to frame the image. Their usual autofocus is by the same contrast-detect mechanism as compacts, but many bridge cameras have a manual focus mode and some have a separate focus ring for greater control.